The likely total of 40,—50, made Sparta one of the larger Greek city-states;   however, according to Thucydides, the population of Boys lived in communal messes and in BC was ,—, making it much larger.
At the peak of its power in the early 4th century BC, Sparta had subdued many of the main Greek states and even invaded the Persian provinces in Anatolia modern day Turkeya period known as the Spartan Hegemony. Unlike Athenian women, who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore dresses peplos slit up the side to allow freer movement, and moved freely about the city, either walking or driving chariots.
Since Spartiates were full-time soldiers, manual labor fell to the Helot population who worked as unskilled serfs, tilling the Spartan land or accompanying the Spartan army as non-combatants. The event severely damaged Sparta's naval power but did not end its aspirations of invading further into Persia, until Conon the Athenian ravaged the Spartan coastline and provoked the old Spartan fear of a helot revolt.
In Kohl, Marvin ed. Its inhabitants were classified as Spartiates Spartan citizens who enjoyed full rights , Mothakes non-Spartan, free men raised as Spartans , Perioikoi freed men , and Helots state-owned serfs, part of the enslaved, non-Spartan, local population.